Algebraic System Chess Notation

If you’ve ever tried reading a chess book or some documented form of a chess match, you have likely stumbled upon weird-looking combinations of letters, numbers, dashes, plusses, and hashtags. Fear not, this is no magic spell. Rather, it is the algebraic system chess notation.

In this article, we will delve into the world of algebraic chess notation, exploring its fundamentals, structure, and its significance in chess education and analysis.

Introduction to Algebraic Chess Notation

Algebraic chess notation is a standardized system used by chess players to record and communicate chess moves. It’s a concise and universally accepted method that allows players to document games, analyze positions, and study famous matches.

Naturally, before the interactive digital books available today, this was the only efficient way of writing chess books or studying chess games in written format.

The Basics of Algebraic Notation

Algebraic notation represents each square on the chessboard with a unique label, combining a letter and a number.

This system divides the board into columns, or files, labeled ‘a’ through ‘h’ from left to right; and rows, or ranks, labeled ‘1’ through ‘8’ from bottom to top. For instance, the square in the bottom-left corner is ‘a1,’ while the square in the top-right corner is ‘h8.’

As an example, in the diagram below, the square highlighted in red is the f5 square, the square highlighted in blue is the c6 square, the square highlighted in orange is the h7 square, and the square highlighted in green is the c2 square.

The algebraic notation gives each square a unique label.
The algebraic notation gives each square a unique label.

Moves are recorded by denoting the piece moved, followed by the destination square. Pawns are represented by a lowercase letter only indicating the square they move to, while other pieces are represented by uppercase letters: ‘N’ for knights, ‘B’ for bishops, ‘R’ for rooks, ‘Q’ for queens, and ‘K’ for kings.

For example, ‘Nf3’ means the knight moves to the square f3, whereas ‘c6’ simply means a pawn moves to the square c6.

Captures and Special Notations

In algebraic notation, captures are indicated by ‘x’ between the piece and the destination square. For example, ‘Bxe5’ denotes a bishop capturing the opponent piece on e5.

Castling is represented as ‘0-0’ for kingside castling and ‘0-0-0’ for queenside castling.

Castling is a fundamental chess move that plays a pivotal role in king safety.

If you're not familiar with it, I suggest you read my article where I explain castling in detail.

En passant captures are noted by appending ‘e.p.’ to the move, indicating a pawn capturing another pawn that has moved two squares forward. Denoting en passant isn’t a must, but some annotators like to use it.

En passant is one of the most unique and intriguing moves in chess.

If you're not familiar with it, I suggest you read my article where I explain the en passant rule in detail.

Promotions are represented by specifying the piece the pawn promotes to after reaching the opponent’s back rank, usually followed by an ‘=.’ For example, ‘e8=Q’ signifies that a pawn moves to the e8 square and promotes to a queen.

Check, Checkmate, and Stalemate Notations

Algebraic notation also includes symbols to indicate the state of the game. A move that puts the opponent’s king in check is denoted by ‘+,’ while a move that results in checkmate is indicated by ‘#.’ For example, ‘Qxf7#’ means the queen captures on f7, delivering checkmate.

‘1-0’ indicates that White won the game, whereas ‘0-1’ means Black won.

Stalemate, where a player has no legal moves and is not in check, is represented as ‘1/2-1/2’ or ‘½-½,’ indicating a draw. This notation is not only used for stalemates, but rather to denote that the game ended in a draw by whichever method.

Examples and Practical Use

To illustrate the practical use of algebraic chess notation, consider the following game fragment:

1. e4 e5

2. Nf3 Nc6

3. Bb5 a6

4. Ba4 Nf6

5. O-O Be7

6. Re1 b5

7. Bb3 d6

This translates to:

First move: White plays pawn to e4. Black responds with pawn to e5.

Second move: White develops their knight to f3. Black responds by developing their knight to c6.

Third move: White plays bishop to b5, to which Black responds by moving the pawn to a6.

Fourth move: White plays bishop to a4, and Black responds by playing knight to f6.

Fifth move: White castles short (kingside). Black plays bishop to e7.

Sixth move: White gets their rook into the game by playing rook to e1. Black responds with pawn to b5.

Seventh move: White plays bishop to b3. Black plays pawn to d6.

This is how the resulting position looks like.

Resulting position after 7 moves.
Resulting position after 7 moves.

We can see from the example above that a game is outlined in algebraic chess notation by the move number, followed by White and Black’s moves, respectively.

In chess literature, if you see a move number followed by one move, for example 3. d6, you can assume it’s describing White’s move. To denote Black’s move separately, we often see three dots as opposed to one, for example 3… d6. The three dots are used as a “placeholder” for White’s move when the context is focusing on Black’s move, perhaps to explain it or comment on it.

This notation allows players to document and recreate games, making it an invaluable tool for reviewing and analyzing chess matches. Chess enthusiasts and professionals frequently use this notation to annotate games, share them with others, or study famous encounters. It provides a concise and standardized way to convey complex chess positions and strategies.


An essential aspect of chess culture and education, algebraic chess notation offers a precise and universally recognized way to record and communicate chess moves, allowing players to engage in the rich tradition of chess analysis and study.

Whether you’re an aspiring player looking to improve your game or a chess aficionado seeking to explore the timeless world of chess literature, a solid grasp of algebraic notation is a valuable asset on your chess journey.

Personally, I haven’t yet acquired the skill of instantly being able to name each square or visualize a picture in my head without seeing the board, but I’d like to think I’m slowly but surely getting there.

If you have any questions or want to share your own experience with chess notation, please feel free to leave me a comment below. I would be more than happy to have a chat with you.

2 thoughts on “Algebraic System Chess Notation”

  1. Hey, learning chess notation is just a part of being a chess player. It can be very useful for studying games and the coolest thing about it is that you can study games from hundreds of years ago between the best players on earth. Chess is a game where it’s the battle of minds, and there are some incredibly brilliant people that have played this game throughout history.

    • Thanks for your insights Jake.

      You are very much right. There are extremely famous chess games that serve as the pinnacle of chess learning, and understanding chess notation facilitates the process of studying such matches.


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